Introduce of Water Jet Cutting Machine
Water jet cutting machine is also name Water jet or Water jet. It’s a industrial tool with a wide variety of application for cutting marble granite and other stone materials. Water jet cutting machine using a high pressure jet of water or mixing water with a special steel sand material. A water jet cutting machine is mainly includes main machine, high pressure generator part, Water-purifying System, Water Jet Control System, Automatic Sand Delivery System and other devices.Compare with bridge saw machine, water jet machine has a higher cutting speed.
Features of Water Jet Cutting Table
- Transmission part of the water jet machine adopts linear guide rail and ball screw mechanical structure, and it’s driven by servo motor and step motor (Z axis). Besides, the software on water jet machine also adopts linear and arc interpolation function to ensure the accuracy of cutting.
- By executing DXF format file or G code command outputted by AutoCAD, our water jet machinecan cut various complex workpieces to meet the needs of production to a large extent.
- We offer various size of CNC water jet machinewith large, medium, small and special size, which can meet the processing of both small parts and large parts.
- There is limit protection on XYZ axis, an alarm will be given in case of exceeding the limit. The platform is full of water, which can stop dust and material splashing during machine cutting. At the same time, this water jet machine receives the sand material and stone waste material to reduce pollution to environment. The drain valve provides convenience for cleaning the sewage and sundries in the platform.
Classification of high pressure water jet
We can sort water jet machine to two different categories according to the different of water media. One is pure water jet cutting machine, the other one is abrasive water jet cutting machine. High pressure pure water jet machine is ued for cutting soft materials such as paper board, food, fiber produces etc. It uses treated industrial water as working medium, through fine filtration, without any solid particles. Abrasive water jet cutting machine is used for cutting hard materials such as metal, stone, glass, plastic, ceramic etc. Different the pure water jet cutting machine, the working medium of abrasive water jet is water and fine abrasive particles. The ratio between abrasive sand and water is different according to cutting materials. Maximum ratio is up to 20% sand and 80% water.
Features of water jet machine
Water jet, which uses cheap water as working medium, is a new cold cutting technology, actually belongs to the category of new design processing, and is one of the advanced cutting technology methods in the world. Water jet can cut all kinds of metal, non-metal materials, all kinds of hard, brittle, toughness materials. Compare with other stone cutting machine, water jet is has a lot of advanced on stone cutting industry. The practice shows that the incision of UHP water jet is flat, no thermal deformation, no edge burr and the cutting speed is fast, and the efficiency is high, the processing cost is low, no dust, no spark, the vibration is small and the noise is low. Water Jet Cutting machine is suitable for processing in harsh working environment and dangerous environment with explosion-proof requirements. In fact, the high-pressure water jet will never be blunt, no tool loss, high processing flexibility, which can save the cost of mold design and manufacturing. In general, it is better to control the ultra-high pressure water jet cutting at 6-10 mm (the specific size depends on the flow of the pump). In order to reduce the regulating force of the regulating mechanism, the valve core is designed as a ladder, and the flow direction of water is set as reverse flow. In this way, under the action of water pressure, the valve core is always subject to a backward thrust. Magnitude of the force is determined by the difference between the diameter and sectional area of valve core and water pressure. In the process of cutting, adjusting the size of the spool and the small diameter can easily control the size of adjusting mechanism. Under the double action of machine vibration and system pressure fluctuation, the adjusting screw on water jet machine may loosen, resulting in the unexpected increase or decrease of pressure. Therefore, in the process of water jet design, it is necessary to consider that the screw adjusting mechanism of valve core should have reliable locking device. In addition, the method of increasing the force area and the force of adjusting screw can also be adopted to reduce the loosening of adjusting screw on water jet machine.
Basic working principle of UHP water jet cutting machine
Ultra high pressure water jet cutting is a high technology developed in 1970s. It uses high-pressure, high-speed small diameter liquid flow as the working medium to spray on the surface of the workpiece, and realizes the cutting of the workpiece by the impact of the liquid flow. If the water pressure is slightly reduced or the target distance and flow rate are increased, high-pressure cleaning, crushing, surface roughening, deburring and strengthening can be carried out. Like laser, ion beam and electron beam, ultra-high pressure water jet belongs to the technical field of high energy beam processing. The world’s first high-pressure water jet cutting equipment was born in 1979. Relying on its own strength, moscut has independently developed various kinds of ultra-high pressure water jet cutting equipment, and carried out a large number of process experiments. This technology has been widely used in the world, and is playing an increasingly important role in the fields of water jet machinery, building materials, national defense, light industry and textile.
Working Principle of ultrahigh pressure water jet cutting
The filtered industrial water is pressurized to 100-400mpa, and then passes through the orifice of the nozzle with a diameter of Φ 0.08-0.5mm, forming a supersonic fine-diameter water column of 500-900m / s. It can be used for cutting many kinds of material like glass, fiber, plastic, wooden, stone and metal etc. The ultra-high pressure water jet itself has high rigidity. When it collides with the workpiece, it will produce high impact dynamic pressure and eddy current. The average velocity of the water jet contains ultra-high speed zone and low speed zone (sometimes it may be negative). Therefore, although surface of the ultra-high pressure water jet is a cylindrical model, there are actually parts with high rigidity and low rigidity inside. The impact dynamic pressure produced by the part with high rigidity reduces the propagation time, increases the impact strength and plays a role of quick wedge splitting. Compared with the high stiffness part, the low stiffness part forms a flexible space, which plays the role of chip suction and chip removal. The combination of the two is just like making it like an axial “saw blade” when cutting materials.
Cutting quality of water jet machine
The cutting shape and dimension accuracy of the hydraulic cutter are mainly affected by the movement track accuracy of the nozzle and the diameter of the inner hole of the nozzle. After adopting ball screw drive device, linear guide rail and CNC system on water jet cutting machine, the movement precision of nozzle can be strictly controlled, and the size precision of workpiece can be controlled within ± 0.1mm. Width of the slit is related to diameter of inner hole of the nozzle. The smaller the diameter is, the higher the machining accuracy is. The slit width is about 0.025mm larger than the diameter of the nozzle. In addition, adding additives in water can improve cutting performance and reduce cutting width. Cutting quality of water jet machine is greatly affected by material properties. Soft material can obtain smooth surface. The material with good plasticity can cut the edge with high quality. If the water pressure is too low, the edge cutting quality will be reduced, especially for composite materials, which is easy to cause material separation or scaling. When the abrasive high pressure water jet is used to cut the workpiece with large thickness, the section quality changes with the cutting depth. Within the range of 1O – 50mm near the upper part of the nozzle, the section is flat, smooth and of good quality. There are shallow ripples in the middle transition region. In lower part of the section, the cutting energy is reduced due to diffusion of the abrasive water jet, forming a deep curved ripple.
Application of water jet machine
Ultra high pressure water jet cutting technology has been widely used in many industrial sectors in the world. In building materials industry and building decoration industry. It can be used to cut marble, granite, ceramics, glass fiber, asbestos and other materials. Water jet machine can cut stone mosaic with complex shape, with accurate cutting size and no dust pollution, so that ceramic floor tiles can change monotonous and rigid in the past and present colorful decoration effect. So that the damaged ceramic floor tiles, stone leftover materials after deep processing appreciation of dozens of times.
- In the automobile manufacturing industry, water jet is used to cut instrument panel, interior and exterior trim, door panel and window glass without mold, which can actually improve the processing flexibility of the production line.
- In the aerospace industry, water jet is used to cut boron fiber, carbon fiber and other composite materials. When cutting, there is no stratification, no heat accumulation, and the cutting edge quality of workpiece is very good. When cutting aluminum alloy, stainless steel, titanium alloy, heat-resistant alloy and other metal materials, there is no metallographic change, no heat affected zone, no thermal stress, narrow cutting seam, high cutting quality and high material utilization rate.
- In the food industry, water jet is used to cut crisp food, vegetables, meat, etc., which can reduce the damage of cell tissue and increase the storage period.
- In papermaking industry, water jet is used for slitting kraft paper and corrugated box board. It has no dust pollution and the cutting speed is up to 1828m / min.
- Water jet are also applied in the electronic industry, for the contour cutting of printed circuit board.
- Water jet is also used in the textile industry to cut multi-layer cloth, which can improve the cutting efficiency and reduce the edge damage.
- Water jet machine can also used for cutting stone material. The stone materials cut by water jet are easy to be pieced together, not limited by the difficulty of processing, regardless of the efficiency of processing, the quality of processing and the effect of decoration, it is currently the best equipment for processing high-difficulty and high artistic sense of modeling. Stone mosaic is a kind of technology with high difficulty in stone processing.
In a word, the application of ultra-high pressure water jet cutting technology is expanding day by day, with great potential. With the continuous reduction of equipment cost, its application will be further improved.
Ultra high pressure water jet cutting technology and Application
Water jet is not a saw blade but it’s more powerful than a saw blade. With the continuous improvement and technology upgrading of engineering and technical personnel from all over the world, the wide application value of water jet has been more and more widely reflected. No matter it’s steel, armor plate or bulletproof glass, any hard material can be cut randomly by water jet. The experimental results show that the cutting speed is 0.045 cm / s when cutting 2.5 cm thick super hard steel plate with water jet cutter, and the softer the material is, the faster the cutting speed is. Water cutting mainly includes cutting and processing of the following materials:
Stainless steel plate, iron plate, aluminum plate, marble, granite, ceramics, glass and all kinds of cutting of special-shaped graphic plane geometry curve cutting. It also includes ceramic art mosaic, marble mosaic, metal technology, glass technology, ceramic technology, various characters, English letters, billboards and other cutting processing.
Cutting depth and cutting speed of water jet cutter.
- There are many technological factors that affect the cutting depth of ultra-high pressure water jet, including the working medium, pressure, working area, cutting time, material of workpiece, distance (target distance) between nozzle and workpiece surface, etc. If the cutting time and the quality of the cutting section are not considered, the cutting thickness of the ultra-high pressure water jet can reach 200m. It has been proved that the cutting efficiency is high and the cutting section is smooth when the thickness is less than 25 mm.
- The cutting speed is related to the nature of material, which is directly proportional to power or pressure of water jet, and inversely proportional to cutting speed and thickness of the workpiece. Increasing water pressure will help to improve cutting depth and cutting speed. Increasing technical difficulty of ultra-high pressure water generating device and ultra-high pressure sealing will increase the equipment cost. The maximum pressure of ultra-high pressure water jet cutting equipment is generally controlled within 400MPa. Distance between lower end face of nozzle and surface of workpiece is called target distance. According to ultra-high pressure pipeline system and corresponding cutting process parameters, water pressure is 189mpa, abrasive nozzle diameter is Φ 0.3mm, water consumption is 2.15l/min, 60 mesh natural abrasive, abrasive consumption is 0.265kg/min and cutting speed is 100mm / min. When it is necessary to cut high-precision workpieces, water jet cutter is a machine that can be used to produce near finished products, which can be processed once without thermal effect. In addition, the waste material produced by water jet cutters is usually valuable, because it is in form of a whole piece rather than debris and can be reused. The applicable industry of water jet cutter is very large, and it has become mainstream machining method in many countries in the world. I believe water jet technology will be pushed to a new height.
Ultra high pressure pipeline system
The water pressure of the ultra-high pressure water jet cutter is as high as 100-400ma, which is more than 10 times higher than the working pressure of the ordinary hydraulic transmission device. Whether the water seal and pipeline system in ultra-high pressure system are reliable is of great significance to ensure stability, safety and reliability of water jet cutting process. Ultra-high pressure water jet seal is divided into static seal and dynamic seal. When the equipment is commissioned, it needs to undergo overpressure test more than twice the working pressure without leakage. Ultra-high pressure water jet pipe in the pipeline adopts high-strength stainless steel thick wall seamless pipe or double-layer stainless steel pipe, and the pipe joint mostly adopts metal elastic sealing structure. In order to facilitate movement of nozzle, an ultra-high pressure flexible steel pipe is arranged between nozzle and fixed water pipe.
Structure of water jet cutting machine
Super high pressure water jet cutting equipment usually adopts gantry or cantilever frame structure. On gantry water jet machine, the nozzle is installed on cutting head, through lead screw and guide rail system, the cutting head makes a linear movement along X axis on fuselage crossbeam. The crossbeam can also move in a straight line on workbench along Y axis. When cutting, work piece is fixed on workbench (water tank), and cutting head moves in a straight line along setting axis on crossbeam. The crossbeam moves in a straight line along the Y axis on water jet machine. X axis and Y axis are driven by ball screw and linear guide rail, with high motion accuracy. Under the program control of the CNC system, the half plane curve cutting with arbitrary shape can be realized. In order to adjust distance between nozzle and workpiece (target distance), the cutting head usually needs to be equipped with a linear drive device in z-axis direction. In order to improve water jet cutting efficiency, a plurality of nozzles of water cutters can be arranged on the same cutting head to cut multiple pieces at the same time.
CNC Water Jet Machine for Stone Material
Ultra-high pressure water jet belongs to point cutting, it can reach any point within its cutting range, so under the control of computer, it can cut any complex figure, and the repeated positioning accuracy can be less than ± 0.05mm. In process of stone mosaic cutting, because the computer can easily realize the gap compensation, it can achieve perfect fit of the part shape. In order to cut three-dimensional complex shape parts, the cutting head can actually be installed on arm of articulated robot to carry out five axis linkage, and realize multi degree of freedom space cutting from the direction.
Abrasive supplying system on water jet machine
In the abrasive high-pressure water cutting equipment, equipped with a abrasive supply system, including bin, abrasive, flow valve and delivery pipe. The shape of the bin and the mesh screen in bin shall ensure smooth supply of abrasives without blocking. Flow valve is used to control the on-off and size of abrasive supply. The consumption of abrasives increases with the increase of water pressure. The commonly used abrasives are corundum, quartz sand, garnet, silicon carbide, etc., which are divided into man-made and natural abrasives. The particle size is between 0.1-0.8mm.
Water supply on water jet cutting machine
It is very important to treat and filter the industrial water when using ultra-high pressure water jet. Improving the filtering accuracy of water medium can effectively prolong the service life of supercharger sealing device and gem nozzle, improve the cutting quality and improve the operation reliability of the equipment. In general, the filtering accuracy of water medium should be controlled within 0.1 μ m during the use of water jet cutter, and the method of multi-stage filtering can be adopted. In addition, the industrial water should be softened to reduce the corrosion degree of the equipment.
Nozzle of Water Jet
The official name of the water jet cutter is ultra-high pressure water jet cutting, which was born in the United States in the early 1970s. Before the 1990s, water jet technology was mastered by a few developed countries in Europe and America. Because of its fast cutting speed, wide cutting range, high cutting accuracy and other excellent characteristics, water jet cutter has quickly become a new favorite and wide range of use in cutting and processing industry. The nozzle is one of the important parts of water jet machine. Structure, working performance and service life of Nozzle will directly affect cutting quality and production cost. Classification of water jet nozzle
According to different cutting technology, the nozzle can be divided into pure water cutting nozzle and abrasive cutting nozzle. Pure water jet cutting nozzle is used to cut non-metallic soft materials with small density and low hardness. Diameter of nozzle inner hole is Φ 0.08-0.5mm. Abrasive cutting nozzle is used to cut hard materials with high density and hardness. When ultra-high pressure water is sprayed from nozzle hole at high speed, a negative pressure vacuum will be formed. Under the effect of negative pressure, the abrasive will be sucked into nozzle through sand inlet. After mixing with high pressure water in mixing chamber, a sand jet will be formed. Diameter of nozzle hole is Φ 0.5-1.65mm, depending on the type and particle size of abrasive.
Properties of water jet nozzle
When cutting the workpiece, the water jet nozzle is subjected to great internal pressure of liquid. It require the nozzle material should have excellent wear resistance, corrosion resistance and high comprehensive mechanical properties. Water jet nozzle is usually made of sapphire, ruby, hard alloy and diamond. Considering cost and manufacturing factors, gem materials are widely used for nozzle at present.
Service life of water jet nozzle
There are many factors that affect service life of water jet nozzle. In addition to nozzle structure, materials, manufacturing, assembly, water pressure and abrasive types, improving filtering accuracy and treatment quality of water medium will also help to improve service life of the nozzle. Generally, pH value of water is 6-8, and we need to filter it below 0.1 μ M. In addition, it is very important to select appropriate abrasive type and particle size to improve service life of water jet nozzle.
Maintain of water jet machine
People who know about water jet cutter should know that no matter what kind of material it is, that is, metal or non-metal, natural or artificial, production supplies or daily necessities, it can cut very well. But compared with other stone cutting machine, the workshop and working environment of the cutting machine still need to be maintained, otherwise, it will also produce dust. Therefore, in order to ensure normal operation of the equipment, its maintenance work is indispensable.
Advantages of water jet cutting machine in stone industry.
Compared with other stone cutting machines, water jet cutter has many advantages. It has no pollution, no cutting loss, and is suitable for any product manufacturing. Here we will introduce the advantages of water jet cutter in processing ceramic and stone materials. Its most feature is to cover all curve cutting of ceramic and stone such as mosaic, counter top and stone furniture etc. Taking the ground parquet as an example, water jet machining can not only save time and labor costs, reduce space occupied by equipment, but also save 40% of material cost, so that a large number of stone waste can be reused again. Compared with bridge saw machine, the simple and easy-to-use water jet cutter can effectively reduce processing time for ceramic manufacturers. For specific brittle materials. Sanding water jet cutter will not cause heat or surface deformation. Therefore, the material can maintain the original appearance and strength. In the ceramic processing industry, the traditional cutting method is usually saw blade cutting, generally only cutting straight line, When cutting the curve, first make a template that meets the size requirements. After preliminary cutting, it is realized by manual grinding. It is not flexible, noisy, dusty and inefficient. Advantages of water jet cutting machine are obvious: first, incision is flat, the cutting quality is high, and “edge burst” phenomenon will not be formed on upper edge of incision after cutting. Secondly, cutting accuracy is high, reaching 0.1mm, and the seam is even, which can be used to make very complex and beautiful puzzles and murals. Finally, water jet cutting efficiency is fast, consistency and interchangeability of products are good, automatic nesting function can be realized, the working environment can be improved, and influence of dust and noise on operators can be reduced. Ultra-high pressure water jet cutting can complete the cutting of any complex shape at a time. It is an effective tool to achieve artistic creation. Water Jet machine is widely used in large-scale buildings and home decoration, greatly improving the practicability and aesthetics of decoration.
What are the differences of 3 axis and 5 axis water jet
With the continuous change and progress of water jet technology, water jet has changed from three axis to five axis. With the continuous improvement of the water jet technology, many people don’t know much about the water jet. They don’t know what kind of water jet they should choose when they buy it, whether they choose three or five axes. In fact, the choice of three and five axes have different requirements for different water jet cutters to cut different materials. Here we will say about the differences of three and five axis water jet machine. Five axis numerical control water jet cutting breaks through limitation of traditional water jet cutting can only cut vertically or at a small angle cutting. On the basis of traditional three axis, two servo rotating shafts and universal swinging head are added to five axis water jet machine. It takes the injection point of the jet at the bottom of the workpiece as the control target, and plans and optimizes the processing path, which greatly improves the cutting efficiency of the water jet cutter and effectively compensates the inherent shape error of the water jet cutter. The five axis water jet cutting machine has realized fully automatic and arbitrary direction linkage cutting. It can realize the one-time forming of complex special-shaped parts, which can avoid the cost of making the mold. Three axis numerical control water jet cutting machine can complete cutting of arbitrary plane complex curve. Cutting with arbitrary shape, flat cut, high cutting quality, no “edge burst” phenomenon will be formed at the edge of the cut after cutting. The incision presents seamless splicing, and lower opening has a gap for glue filling, eliminating the second grinding process. Choose different water jet according to different cutting materials. The best is to choose a right one, not necessarily expensive one, so the best is to choose suitable water jet according to your own requirements.
Specifications of Water Jet Cutting Platform
|Structure||Dual drive gantry separated|
|Repeat accuracy||± 0.01mm|
|Travel speed (XY-axis)||0-12m/min|
|Travel speed (Z-axis)||0-10m/min|
Specifications of water jet High-pressure System
|Continuous Working Pressure||380-400Mpa|
|Abrasive cutting gap||1.0-1.8mm|
|Pure water cutting gap||0.15-0.3mm|
|Power Supply||380V/ 415V/ 220V; 50HZ/ 60HZ; 3phrase|
Water Jet Spare Part List
|1||Snap spring (big)||2||Inside the high pressure assembly|
|2||Snap spring(small)||2||Inside the high pressure assembly|
|3||Plug spring for high pressure cylinder||2||Inside the high pressure assembly|
|4||Water inlet connection for low pressure||2||Inside the high pressure assembly|
|5||O-shape sealing ring for on/off water switch||6||On/off water-switch|
|6||Ring of oil cylinder||6||Inside the high pressure assembly|
|7||Ring of oil cylinder lid||6||Inside the high pressure assembly|
|9||Abrasive tube||1||On/off water-switch|
|10||Abrasive tube joint||1||On/off water-switch|
|11||Ring of valve plate||6||Inside the high pressure assembly|
|12||Ring of plug of high pressure cylinder||6||Inside the high pressure assembly|
|13||Filter element 1um||1||Inside the UP Intensifier|
|14||Reversing spring||2||Inside the UP Intensifier|
|16||Anti-vibration pad||6||Beneath the cutting platform|
|18||3/8 Screw hat of high pressure pipe||1|
|19||Water-ring of switch||2|